22 februari 2013

Ephenation evaluation report

Vision of Ephenation

To have a game like World Of Warcraft, where players are able to add their own adventures. I think this is a probable future development. This type of games should be fully realized and generally available in something like 10 to 20 years.


Unlimited world

The size of the world should not be limited. It is easier to implement a flat world than a spherical world, and a flat world can be unlimited. The nature will obviously have to be created automatically.

Unlimited players

This is not possible, of course, but the number of simultaneous players should be big. Limitation to 10 or 100 is much too small, as everyone would more or less know everyone and work on the same project. A minimum would be 1000 players, but preferably more than 10000. That will lead into a situation where you always meet new players you don't know, and the world is big enough so as to always find somewhere that you have not explored.

Unlimited levels

Most RPG type of games have a limited set of levels. But that will put a limit on the game play. After reaching the top level, the game is no longer the same. Not only that, but there is a kind of a race to reach this top level. Instead, there shall be no last top level. That will put an emphasis on constant exploration and progress.

Allocate territory

Players should be able to allocate a territory, where they can design their own adventures. This territory shall be protected from others, making sure no one else can interfere with the design.

Social support

The community and social interaction is very important. That is one reason for the requirement to support many players, as it will allow you to include all friends. There are a couple of ways to encourage community:
  1. Use of guilds. This would be a larger group of players, where you know the others.
  2. Temporary teams, used when exploring. It is more fun to explore with others.
  3. Use of common territories. It shall be possible to cooperate with friends to make territories that are related and possibly adjacent to each other.


It shall be possible to design interesting buildings, landscapes and adventures. The adventures shall be advanced enough so as to support triggered actions, with dynamic behavior that depends on player choices.


This is a description on how the project was executed. It was started end of 2010. Most of the programming was done by me (Lars Pensjö), but I got support with several sub modules.


It was decided to use Go as the programming language for the server. Go has just the right support for this type of software:
  1. High performance (compiled language)
  2. Object oriented and static typing
  3. A concept of gorutines (light version of threads)
  4. A very high quotient for "it works when it compiles"
  5. Garbage collection
The disadvantage of Go when the Ephenation project was started, was that Go was a new language, in transition, with uncertain future. This turned out to not be a problem, and the language has today a frozen specification (Go 1).

To be able to manage the massive amount of players, quadtrees are used for both players and monsters.

It is the server that has full control over all Model data. Player attributes, melee mechanisms, movements, etc.


The client was initially designed in C, but I soon switched to C++. There are still some remains from C, which explains some not-so-good OO solutions. OpenGL was selected, instead of DirectX, partly as a random choice, but also because I wanted to do the development in Linux.

It was decided to use OpenGL 3.3, instead of supporting older variants. There are some nice improvements in OpenGL that makes design easier, which was deemed more important than supporting old hardware.

The world consists of blocks, voxels. This is difficult to draw in real time with high FPS, as the number of faces grow very quickly with viewing distance. Considerable effort was spent on transforming the list of cubes into a list of visible triangles. It is also difficult to make a level of detail (LOD) algorithm that gradually reduce details on long distances.

Another technical difficult with a world based on cubes was to make it look nice, instead of blocky. Some algorithms were investigated that used a kind of filter. As the view distance is limited, there can be a conflict when being underground.

The game engine can't know whether the far distance, which is not visible, should be replaced by a light background (from the sky) or from a dark background (typical to being underground). A compromise is used, where the color of the distance fog depends on the player being at a certain height.


There are strict requirements on the protocol. If a server shall be able to handle 10000+ players, the communication can easily become a bottleneck. TCP/IP was selected in favor of UDP/IP, to make it easier to handle traffic control. The protocol itself is not based on any standard, and completely customized for Ephenation.


There are two major choices. Either use a scripting language to control the aspects of the world, or a graphical approach. A scripting language is more powerful, but on the other hand it is harder to learn. There is also the problem with supporting a massive amount of players, in which case time consuming scripts would make it unfeasible.

The choice was to go for a limited set of blocks, with a special block type that can be used to initiate predefined actions. Inspiration was taken from the principles of Lego blocks. With a relatively small set of basic blocks, it is possible to construct the most amazing things.


Game engine

The client side was designed from scratch, instead of using an existing game engine. This may have been a mistake, as the main development time was spent on graphical technology, instead of exploring the basic visions.

Adventure design and mechanics

The set of blocks and possible actions with "activator blocks" are currently limited. It is not enough to construct full adventures that are fun to explore and provides great entertainment.
Early version of the game, where a player abused the monster spawner

Game play

The basic world is automatically generated. This usually make a game of limited interest, as game play is bound to become repetitive. Support from initial players enabled the creation of a world with many new buildings and creations. The more advanced features that support dynamic behavior was not added until later, which unfortunately lead to most part of the current world being too static.


The graphics is working, but far from a production level. There are several glitches, e.g. camera falling inside the wall and lighting effects cut off. As the world is dynamic, the possibility to do offline precalculations are limited. That means most graphical effects has to be done live, which is a difficult requirement. For example, it is not known how many light sources that should be possible to manage. It was chosen to use a deferred shader, which improves the decoupling from geometry and shading.
Early attempt to create automatic monsters. This was later replaced with fully animated models.


The social side of the game play has been explored very limited. There are ways to send message to nearby players, and to communicate privately with any player. Although this is a very important aspect of the final vision, it is known technology and not difficult to implement.

Performance tests

The aggressive requirement to support 10,000 simultaneous players is hard to verify. A simple simulator was used, adding 1000 players at random position with a uniform density. These players simply walked around. If they were attacked, they attacked back again. If they were killed, they automatically used the command to revive again.

On a Core I7 with 8 GBytes of RAM, the load from the server was approximately 10%. This is no proof that the server can actually manage 10,000 players, as there may be non linear dependencies. There are known bottlenecks, for example monster management that is currently handled by a single thread. That means at most one core can be used for this, but it should be possible to distribute this task into several smaller goroutines.

The communication was measured at around 100 MB/s. With linear scaling, it would be 1GB/s for 10,000 players. The intention is that the scaling should be linear, as cross communication between players is designed to be of constant volume. Still, it remains to be proven.

There is the obvious question whether the simulator is representative to real players. One way to improve that assessment would be to measure the actual behaviour of real players, and compare with the simulator.

Another possible bottle neck is the communication with the player database (MongoDB). This depends on the number of login/logout and auto saves. It also depends on load generated from the web page. This has not been evaluated. Typically, an access takes about 1ms. The MongoDB is currently located on the same system as the game server, minimizing communication latency. The database will have to be managed by another computer system for a full production server.


The objects that the player can wear and wield are simplified. As the game as a concept is unlimited, it is not possible to hand craft objects. Instead, there are 4 defined qualities for each object, per level.


TCP/IP has a higher overhead than UDP/IP. Some packages are big (the complete chunks), which would have required several UDP/IP packets and a complicated transmission control. It may be that UDP/IP should be used instead. However, this was not an issue for evaluation of the project.

As the server is responsible for all object atributes, the clients need to be updated frequently. Player and monster positions are updated 10 times per second. This generates some data, so the update is limited to nearby players. Because of this, the client need to do interpolation to be able to show smooth movements, and the client need to be able to manage stale information about other players and monsters. The advantage of having the server manage all attributes is that it is not possible to cheat. The client source code is available, and it would have been easy to do changes.


Moore's law

I believe the computers will continue to grow more powerful exponentially for many years still. However, the full power will probably not be accessible unless the game server can scale well with increasing number of cores. The performance test were done on hardware from 2011, and there are already much more powerful equipment available.

Adventure design

As a proof of concept, I think the project was successful. The thing I miss most, is a powerful enough mechanism that supports custom adventures. This is a key point of the game concept, but I believe, with more personnel involved, that new ideas would be available that would improve the possibilities considerably.

Document update history

2013-02-22 First published.
2013-02-24 Added discussion about using voxels on the client side.
2013-02-27 Information about entity attribute management and communication.
2015-05-04 Pictures failed, and were replaced.

2 kommentarer:

  1. What ultimately happened of the project?
    I'd love to hear about Go's ability to thread across multiple servers.

    1. For now, I don't plan to continue development of Ephenation. The last I did was to test it with Oculus Rift, which was fun.

      The current algorithm depends on everything being run by a single server. Objects/monsters/players that can interact with each other need to be on the same server. There are no natural boundaries that would help distribute the jobs across multiple servers. I think it is harder to create such boundaries in procedurally created worlds.